The Julian-Dalmatian question concerns the events of the Julian-Dalmatian people who lived in Friuli-Venezia Giulia territories, included the cities of North-east Italy, Trieste and Gorizia, a part of actual Croatia and Fiume, Istria and Dalmatia, ex Italian territories. This question can be divided in three fondamental lines: the “infoibamento”, the internment of prisoniers in gulags and the exodus of Julian-Dalmatian people. 8 september 1943 is the beginning of violences escalation in Istria, Fiume and Dalmatia by Slavonic and some Italian communist partisans towards Italian fascists or presumed fastists; in this day the notice of armistice, signed by Italy, spread and broke definitely the political power of Mussolini. Probably to revenge the political and civil persecutions and repressions, suffering by Slavonic people in Istria and Fiume in 1922 during the gouvernment of Fascism and probably to expand hegemony to West, the Yugoslavian communist leader Josip Broz, above-mentioned as T.I.T.O, “Tajna Internacionalna Teroristicka Organizacija”, that is to say “Secret International Terroristic Organization”, directed his secret police O.Z.N.A in order to sow violences, dead and distruction in many territories and cities of Istria, Fiume and Dalmatia.
“Infoibamento”. The term “infoibamento” derives from “foiba”, term with which it’s indicated a rocky sinkhole, a natural chasm created in the mountains by the time, deep more than 80 mt, very spread in Istria and Friuli-Venezia Giulia. The “infoibamento” is the act of throwing one or more persons into a foiba. A high number of Julian-Dalmatian people were captured, condemned to death without a fair process and, after physical and psychological violences, they were undressed and, joining the first of line to other three or four persons with steel, they were token to foibes. Here in order to economize bullets, the partisans of Tito shot at head’s first of line, that falling down, dragged the others alive.
Internament in gulags. In the communist gulags the psychological and physical tortures were terribles: “the pole”, which consisted in binding a prisonier, with a steel through two or three hours to a wooden pole that immobilized him and lifted him off the ground so much that the prisonier lacerated his flesh and he lost permanently or at the moment the use of his arms; “the triangle”, which consisted in obliging a prisonier to be standing in a little space for a long time; “the pit”, which consisted in obliging a prisonier to be standing in a pit so big as his body without the possibility to bend arms and legs; the “stroj”, an human tunnel throught which communist partisans obliged to pass newly arrived who were cudgelled and insulted by internees; the “bojkot”, a forced solitary to which the opposers to Tito power were forced.
Exodus. With the Agreement of Paris Peace, in 1947, Italy gave to ex Yugoslavia its territories: Istria, Fiume and Dalmatia and its islands, causing in this way an exodus of 350.000 Italians, a painful separation from their property, culture, identity. The refugees were arranged in the Centers of Gathering, located in different Italian structures, without heating, in shaky hygienic conditions and promiscuity.